In the current study, a culturally appropriate 21-item measurement scale for cigarette smoking was developed based on the core constructs of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). Figure 2b depicts the two-level measurement model. For example, although the overall mean score of the 21 items = 4.20, close to the middle point 4 of the 7-point Likert scale (indicating good scale responsiveness); the mean scores for several items were either too small (e.g. We see this as a critical first-step towards effective tobacco-control intervention in China; moreover, results suggest the potential for PMT-grounded research in other developing countries to promote cross-cultural tobacco research. The PMT further stipulates that the emotional state of fear arousal influences … on the constructs of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) [1]. The questionnaire was completed by 310 participants. Scores for Perceived Threat were computed as the mean of Severity and Vulnerability. Anderson Johnson C, Palmer PH, Chou CP, Pang Z, Zhou D, et al. This study developed and validated an instrument to measure individual security behaviors. One possible explanation for the lack of significant program effects could be that most tobacco prevention research and programs in China are not grounded in or guided by theory. Overall, scores for the Threat Appraisal Pathway were calculated as the difference between Perceived Threat and Perceived Rewards such that a higher score indicated a net surplus of perceived threat as compared to the rewards. Chen X, Li Y, Unger JB, Gong J, Johnson CA, et al. More smokers get sickness than nonsmokers, 10. Rates of tobacco use among adolescents in China and other lower and middle-income countries remain high despite notable prevention and intervention programs. Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, Ross J, Hawkins J, et al. The acceptability, reliability, and validity of the established PMT scale indicate the utility of PMT as a construct for measuring and understanding perceptions of smoking and related health consequences among Chinese adolescents. This article shows how sanctioning rhetoric can improve the effectiveness of fear-appeal manipulations. Prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes in Minhang District. 2012. Action-control: From cognition to behavior. 407-429. Protection motivation theory (PMT) is a prominent example of a motivational theory of health behavior first described by Rogers in 1975 [20]. Patterns of cigarette smoking among students from 19 colleges and universities in Jiangsu Province, China: a latent class analysis. One obvious challenge is the lack of relevant measurement scales of the essential constructs in the theoretical approach. Four indices were used for assessing data-model fit: chi-square/df ratio (<2.0) [65], the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA, ≤ 0.08 acceptable, ≤ 0.05 excellent) [66], goodness-of-fit index (GFI, ≥ 0.90 acceptable, ≥ 0.95 excellent), and comparative fit index (CFI, ≥ 0.90 acceptable, ≥ 0.95 excellent) [67]. Murray-Johnson L, et al. Liang, H., and Xue, Y. In terms of threat appraisal, it is important to emphasize that the feeling of fear is conceptually distinct from the fear appeal or fear-appeal message. Using fear appeals to engender threats and fear that motivate protective behaviors in users,” MIS Quarterly (MISQ), vol. Zhang J, Ou JX, Bai CX. Protection motivation theory is a well-suited theory, since fear can motivate individuals to change their unhealthy behaviors. J Addict Res Ther. Adolescent smoking in Wuhan, China: baseline data from the Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial. Data were collected from a student sample in 2010. B. change behavior by intimidation. Quit smoking is good for disease recovery, 19. 837–864. • Studies should consider maladaptive response rewards involved with not vaccinating. This article returns the IS field to the full nomology of PMT and shows how to use it properly for manipulated fear appeals with the full nomology, including the measurement of fear. 549-566. Psychosocial correlates of cigarette smoking among college students in China. Mean scores (SD), item-total correlations and Cronbach α of the PMT constructs are summarized in (Table 2). behavior. Schroeder SA, Fulton DC. 549-566. I can refuse even if a relative or friend asks me to smoke, 17. Rogers, R. W. 1975. 1Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA, 2Wuhan Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, Wuhan, China. "An Enhanced Fear Appeal Rhetorical Framework: Leveraging Threats to the Human Asset through Sanctioning Rhetoric," MIS Quarterly (39:1), pp. WoŸniak K, Moes A, Chadzyński R, Domagał‚a-Kulawik J. Lee, D., Larose, R., and Rifon, N. 2008. In this study, the central constructs of PMT significantly predicted smoking intent and behavior. The drafted items were circulated among the co-authors and their colleagues for feedback to produce a draft version. "A Meta-Analysis of Research on Protection Motivation Theory," Journal of Applied Social Psychology (30:2), pp. Gong YL, Koplan JP, Feng W, Chen CH, Zheng P, et al. Despite substantial and documented tobacco control efforts in China, researchers have found only limited success in preventing or reducing tobacco use among adolescents [28,34]. The scale should also be tested and evaluated in other non-western countries towards the broader goal of promoting global efforts for tobacco control using theory-based measurement tools and intervention designs. Overview of Central Constructs of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). 276-289. Guo Q, Johnson CA, Unger JB, Lee L, Xie B, et al. Protection motivation theory and per capita income explained 51% of motivation variance and 25% of the variance of skin cancer preventive behaviors. Response self-efficacy is the process in the Protection Motivation Theory concerned with community level ability to adopt recommended changes. 153-176. Johnston, A. C., and Warkentin, M. 2010. The draft version was then reviewed by several middle school teachers in China for feedback and further revision to produce a pilot version. The three items comprising Severity assess the perceived negative health consequences from smoking, e.g., “Smokers die earlier than nonsmokers.” The three items of the Vulnerability construct measure the perceived likelihood of being affected by tobacco-related negative health consequences, for example “I would get sick if I smoke.” The Intrinsic Rewards items focus on the perceived positive biological and psychological effects from smoking, for example “Smoking makes people feel comfortable.” Next, the three items compromising Extrinsic Rewards evaluate the perceived psycho-social benefits from smoking, including “Smoking is good for social networking.” The Self-Efficacy items assess an individual’s belief of his or her ability to refuse to smoke tobacco, for example “No one could persuade me if I do not want to smoke.” The Response Efficacy items are focused on an individual’s belief that nonsmoking is an effective approach for good health. Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was developed by Rogers in 1975, to describe how individuals are motivated to react in a self-protective way towards a perceived health threat. The variable intention to smoke was assessed using data from the survey question: “How likely is it that you will smoke cigarettes in a year?” (1= very unlike and 5=very likely). Perceptions and attitudes regarding sex and condom use among Chinese college students: a qualitative study. Association between psychological factors and adolescent smoking in seven cities in China. Using fear appeals to engender threats and fear that motivate protective behaviors in users, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2292761, Motivating the insider to protect organizational information assets: Evidence from protection motivation theory and rival explanations, The impact of organizational commitment on insiders’ motivation to protect organizational information assets, https://is.theorizeit.org/w/index.php?title=Protection_motivation_theory&oldid=880. Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) Generally, the intention of human beings to engage in any behavior is the most vital determinant of the beha-vior [24]. Lee Y. Rogers, R. W., and Prentice-Dunn, S. 1997. The quality of life of chronically ill individuals, such as hay fever sufferers, is significantly dependent on their health behavior. Tanner JF, Hunt JBE, David R. The Protection Motivation Model: A Normative Model of Fear Appeals. Protection Motivation Theory (PMT), Adolescents, Cigarette smoking, Measurement modeling analysis of the threat appraisal. Perceived Rewards also includes two constructs, Intrinsic Rewards and Extrinsic Rewards. First, several items should be further refined to improve instrument responsiveness. We must continue our quest to clarify the conditions under which motivational constructs best predict achievement behavior. Cronbach α and item-total correlation were used to assess the reliability of the individual PMT constructs. Students were sampled from a typical school with a medium school size and multi-occupational directions. This study details the development and evaluation of a measurement scale for cigarette smoking behavior among adolescents in China based on the constructs of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) [1]. Anderson, C. L., and Agarwal, R. 2010. Unger JB, Chen X. Weiss JW, Palmer PH, Chou CP, Mouttapa M, Johnson CA. Increases in Perceived Efficacy and declines in Perceived Costs will decrease the likelihood of selecting a maladaptive risk behavior. "Fear Appeals and Information Security Behaviors: An Empirical Study," MIS Quarterly (34:1), pp. This theory, which is based on expectancy-value theory, was proposed by Rogers in 1975 to explain the effects of fear on attitudes in health behaviors also he argued that fear could affect the protection motivation through the constructs of self-efficacy, response efficiency, response costs, perceived vulnerability, and perceived severity . A cluster randomized controlled trial of an adolescent HIV prevention program among Bahamian youth: effect at 12 months post-intervention. The central tenet of the theory is that people protect themselves based on their perceptions of four factors: the severity of a threatening event, the probability of Zhu BP, Liu M, Wang SQ, He GQ, Chen DH, et al. item19 and item 12, <2.0) or too large (e.g. Constructs of fear and perceived severity of protection motivation theory with predicting 38% of the variance of nutritional high risk behaviors had an effective role against gastric cancer and may help in the design and implementation of educational programs for the prevention of gastric cancer. The PMT scale developed for this study consisted of 21 items with three items for each of the seven PMT constructs. Scott R. Boss, Dennis F. Galletta, Paul Benjamin Lowry, Gregory D. Moody, and Peter Polak (2015). Clay Posey, Tom L. Roberts, and Paul Benjamin Lowry (2015). Hesketh T, Ding QJ, Tomkins A. 39 (4), pp. The number of students with missing data for individual PMT items varied from 2–5 (<1.00%). The scale was assessed among a sample of 553 Chinese vocational high school students. Protection motivation “the protection motivation concept involves any threat for which there is an effective recommended response that can be carried out by the individual” (Floyd et al. Approval of the school administration was obtained before students were sampled; in addition, informed consent was obtained from the students and their parents before the survey was administered. 113-132. Yang H, Li X, Stanton B, Chen X, Liu H, et al. Wen X, Chen W, Gans KM, Colby SM, Lu C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Results of the present study add to this body of literature focused on social cognitive processes underlying smoking behavior. We wish to express our gratitude and thanks to the teachers and students who were involved in this study. "Fear Appeals and Information Security Behaviors: An Empirical Study," MIS Quarterly (34:1), pp. Within the Threat Appraisal Pathway, Intrinsic Rewards and Extrinsic Rewards were highly correlated (covariate coefficient = 0.98); and so were Severity and Vulnerability (covariate coefficient = 0.88, p<0.01). Rogers RW. Separately, a fear appeal is the stimulus designed to trigger both fear and the threat-appraisal and coping-appraisal processes. Among Chinese adolescents, it is estimated that 33.3–47.8% of males and 12.8–24.3% of females have initiated smoking (i.e., have smoked at least once), and 15.0–18.30% of males and 1.7–4.0% of females are current smokers [29–33]. Floyd DL, Prentice-dunn S, Rogers RW. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. The two efficacy constructs were positively associated with each other while Response Costs was negatively associated with the two efficacy constructs. Tobacco smoking in China: prevalence, disease burden, challenges and future strategies. You may notice problems with Flynn MF, Lyman RD, Prentice-Dunn S. Protection motivation theory and adherence to medical treatment regimens for muscular dystrophy. 2009. One reason for this may be the lack of theory-based research in tobacco use prevention in these countries. Ma H, Unger JB, Chou CP, Sun P, Palmer PH, et al. Perceived Costs consists of one construct, Response Costs, which measures the perceived social, monetary, personal, time and effort costs from adapting the protective. Gong J, Stanton B, Lunn S, Deveaux L, Li X, et al. Two smoking measures were used as outcome variables: intention to smoke and number of cigarettes smoked per day. The constructs in the model were coupled to two cognitive processes believed to determine the protection motivation: threat appraisaland coping appraisal. 2000, p. 411). Despite the potential utility of the scale, there are notable weaknesses in the instrument. Understanding anti-plagiarism software adoption: An extended protection motivation theory perspective. Protection Motivation Theory into an information security context. The three-year vocational high school education is established for middle school graduates who did not advance to regular high school. Using the Protection Motivation Theory construct of coping appraisal, the parents would be lectured on the effectiveness of different weight loss strategies for children, such as playing games or sports for physical activity and learning different healthy snack food options for kids. The US-developed PMT may offer a promising theoretical framework for understanding tobacco use behavior in China. Johnston, A. C., and Warkentin, M. 2010. 61-84. Measurement modeling analysis of the coping appraisal. "Protection Motivation Theory," in Handbook of Health Behavior Research I: Personal and Social Determinants, D. S. Gochman (ed. Results in Figure 2a indicate a satisfactory fit of the data with the one-level four-construct model for the Threat Appraisal Pathway (chi-square/df = 1.82, RMSEA = 0.04, GFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98). 20-29. A Protection Motivation Theory-Based Scale for Tobacco Research among Chinese Youth. The theory attempts to explain and predict what motivates people to change their behavior. item1, item6, item14 and item15, >6.0). While these articles contribute to our understanding of motivational theory, I concur with Murphy and Alexander (this issue) that there remains much to be done. Results from correlational and measurement modeling analysis indicated adequate measurement reliability for the proposed PMT scale structure. Thus, PMT includes both threat and coping appraisals, making it particularly useful to explain why people engage in unhealthy behaviors, such as smoking, despite the well-known health risks. 353-363. Lee, Y., and Larsen, K. R. 2009. Operationalizing theoretical constructs in bloodborne pathogens training curriculum. Protection motivation theory is an educational and motivational process. Corcoran RD, Allegrante JP. A Meta-Analysis of Research on Protection Motivation Theory. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. ), New York, NY: Guilford, pp. Leading IS Articles that Contextualized PMT to IS context, What do users have to fear? In the modeling analysis, the Threat Appraisal and the Coping Appraisal Pathways were analyzed separately (Figure 2 and ​and3).3). Chi-square test indicated that on average boys had greater intention to smoke and smoked significantly more cigarettes than girls did (p<0.01 for both). We conducted a review and found only a few studies conducted in China (published in Chinese or English) that have been guided by a specific behavioral theory [27,31,39–46]. According to the coping appraisal construct of Protection Motivation Theory, before people will adopt a recommended behavior, they need proof that it works. Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) Generally, the intention of human beings to engage in any behavior is the most vital determinant of the behavior [ 24 ]. Importantly, the best fear appeals create both high threat and high efficacy because they address both the threat and the individual’s ability to deal with it (Milne et al. "Protection Motivation and Deterrence: A Framework for Security Policy Compliance in Organisations," European Journal of Information Systems (18:2), pp. Strobino D, Keane V, Holt E, Hughart N, Guyer B. Parental attitudes do not explain underimmunization. Chen X, Stanton B, Gomez P, Lunn S, Deveaux L, et al. 2000–2001. Relative contributions of protection motivation theory components in predicting exercise intentions and behavior. The α coefficient for Vulnerability could be increased. The Threat Appraisal Pathway consists of four constructs in two groups, Perceived Threat and Perceived Rewards. Second, in the coping-appraisal process, a person’s response efficacy and self-efficacy must outweigh the response costs for engaging in the protection motivation. As a theoretical guide, PMT has been used in etiological studies to investigate various risk and protective behaviors, including tobacco use [2,9], alcohol consumption [10,11], physical activity [12–14], self-care [15], safe and protective behaviors at the worksite [3,16], parental protective behavior [17], safe computing practices [18,19], and environmental hazard reduction [20]. Jenkins, J. L., Grimes, M., Proudfoot, J., and Lowry, P. B. Smoking among adolescents in China: 1998 survey findings. “Motivating the insider to protect organizational information assets: Evidence from protection motivation theory and rival explanations,” Proceedings of the Dewald Roode Workshop in Information Systems Security 2011, IFIP WG 8.11 / 11.13, Blacksburg, VA, September 22–23, pp. Bledsoe LK. LaRose, R., Rifon, N. J., and Enbody, R. 2008. In a PMT context, fear is defined as a “relational construct, aroused in response to a situation that is judged as dangerous and toward which protective action is taken” (Rogers 1975, p. 96). Grenard JL, Guo Q, Jasuja GK, Unger JB, Chou CP, et al. Although slightly weaker than the one-level model with regard to the data-model fit indices, the two-level model fit the data well (chi-square/df = 3.12, RMSEA = 0.06, GFI = 0.96, CFI = 0.96). Noar SM, Mehrotra P. Toward a new methodological paradigm for testing theories of health behavior and health behavior change. 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