League of Nations Interactive. This was Wilson’s pet idea. 3 *03* Turn over y … All five of the Paris Peace Treaties – Versailles, Neuilly, Sevres, Saint Germain and Trianon – began in the same way, by describing a new organisation for keeping peace in the world – the League of Nations. Jim co-founded tutor2u alongside his twin brother Geoff! They all believed in ‘totalitarian’ type of government. How do you know? The vote came out in favour of China. 0470_s18_ms_12. It failed to achieve its aims because of a number of serious weaknesses in its organisation and membership. History of the League of Nations (1919-1946) Born with the will of the victors of the First World War to avoid a repeat of a devastating war, the League of Nations objective was to maintain universal peace within the framework of the fundamental principles of the Pact accepted by its Members : “to develop cooperation among nations and to guarantee them peace and security”. At the start of 1920, the Russians had no diplomatic relations with the Western powers. The First World War should be “the war that ended all wars” Countries needed to find a place to meet and collaborate to find peaceful … While this project is ongoing, we’ve compiled a list of resources related to modules for first teaching from 2019. IGCSE History Exams: Paper 2 (Document) Style Questions. This means governments which try to stamp out any rival views and look upon human beings as of no importance except as servants of the state. Excite and challenge pupils with this interactive Power Point Presentation. It was closely connected in many people’s minds with the loss of Germany’s colonies, the need to pay reparations and the transfer of German land to the people of Poland, Denmark, France and Belgium. FOURAIMSOFTHELEAGUEOFNATIONS 1. … If you need additional answer paper ask the invigilator for a continuation booklet. 0470_s18_gt. The following examples are best shared with students after they have attempted them in test conditions. This is a guide for the IGCSE History Paper 2 June 2018 Exam - Unit 2: To what extent was the League of Nations a success? 0470_s18_ms_11. Meaning that nations would talk through disputes rather than resorting to violence. By these treaties, France, Belgium and Germany agreed to respect the borders between their countries and promised not to go to war against each other except in self-defence. The Locarno Treaties were regarded as a great step towards preserving peace in Europe and improving Franco-German relations by removing some of the mistrust between two countries. Explain your answer. Download League of Nations iGCSE Revision Notes. The League of Nations as the muzzle that would contain the 'dog of war'. When they did impose them, they were easily broken. As soon as you put on the uniform, everyone sees you as a representative in the Jungmaedel League and judges the entire League based on your appearance and your demeanor. The reasons behind their decision was varied: many Americans wanted to return to a policy of isolation and feared that membership of the League might cause them to be embroiled in another war and the high human cost attached. Lord Lytton quickly concluded that Japan had been in the wrong and that Manchuria was rightfully Japanese. Moreover, the powerful member-nations were unwilling to work together in order to stop aggressive nations because of policy differences. This website and its content is subject to our Terms and IGCSE History 2018 Past Papers. The number of temporary members was increased to six in 1922 and to nine in 1926. registered in England (Company No 02017289) with its registered office at 26 Red Lion CAMBRIDGE IGCSE/AS HISTORY: THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS 1919-1939 1. How secure was the USSR’s control over Eastern Europe, 1948–c.1989? Unit 2: League of Nations (a) What steps did the League of Nations take against Japan following the invasion of Manchuria? A further attempt to limit the growth of naval armaments was made at the London Conference of 1930. PCS History Department The Birth of the League In 1918 nobody wanted to repeat the mass slaugther of the war. I can be contacted at email@example.com Unit 5: The globalisation of the Cold War. How far do these two sources agree with each other? The added clauses to the agreements they signed, which allowed them to increase the number of their fighting ships if other powers did not observe the agreed limits. 0470_m18_1_2_ms. Help would be arranged by the Council of the League, a smaller body which could meet quickly in a crisis. Depth Study: Germany Part 3 - The Nazi regime. Past Papers Of Home/Cambridge International Examinations (CIE)/IGCSE/History (0470) | PapaCambridge . Paris Peace Conference 12. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. History / Contemporary history (1901 â Present Day), History / Contemporary history (1901 â Present Day) / Interwar years (1918-1939), IGCSE History Paper 1 model answers and techniques, A guide to IGCSE History Paper 2 - June 2018 (League of Nations), Poverty in England in the early 20th Century - Rowntree Booth Galt ideal for KS3 or KS4, Reasons for the Liberal Welfare Reforms PPT Ideal for KS3 or KS4. But when Hitler came to power in 1933, the Western powers at the conference were worried and decided against the idea. In 1919, the International Labour Organisation (ILO), aimed to improve the conditions in which people worked, was established as an affiliated body of the League. The League had to plan action; sanctions were … This last attempt at disarmament showed once again that collective security had failed. 0470_s18_ms_12. Home > IGCSE study tools > History > League of Nations. They felt that the Americans were the only nation with the resources or influence to make the League work. Curriculum Topics. IGCSE History Feb & March Past Papers. 0470_m18_4_2_qp. The League Covenant is the list of rules by which the League was to operate. Another attempt at collective security was the signing of the Kellogg-Briand Pact, or Pact of Paris, in 1928. cambridge igcse history revision 2 - league of nations. The First World War should be “the war that ended all wars” Countries needed to find a place to meet and collaborate to find peaceful … To what extent was the League of Nations a success? In Japan, the Depression threatened a complete collapse of the country’s industry. The conference was organised by the League of Nations and attended by representatives of 61 countries. … In 1920, most Americans had been in favour of America’s membership of the League; certainly at least a great majority of American newspapers had supported entry. 0470_m18_0_0_gt. The League needed the goodwill and help of every country but it started with a severe handicap.  Unit 3: Causes of WW2 It contains: content revision for Unit 2 exam technique and model answers cartoon analysis for Unit 2. In many cases, however, the League met too infrequently and took too long to make decisions. The final Assembly of the League was held in April 1946. To be effective, the League needed to include all the Great Powers and united action to deter any aggressor. IGCSE History: P1 Model Answers Model answers are an invaluable way of helping students develop both their knowledge and their examination skills. During the 1920s, the League of Nations successfully settled a number of disputes between small, weak nations. The emphasis is on both historical knowledge and on the skills required for historical research. READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST An answer booklet is provided inside this question paper. League of Nations - Manchurian Crisis - Invasion 2 - 1933 Feb 1933, Japan did not withdraw and announced invading more of China; arguing necessary & self defence; 24.2.1933 report from Leagues officials approved 43 votes - 1 in assembly; Japan resigned from League 27.2.1933 Reviews and feeback are much appreciated, and if you have any queries, please do not hesitate to email me at firstname.lastname@example.org. IGCSE History 2018 Past Papers. More importantly, the Depression also led to. By the mid-1920s, there was a widespread attitude that perhaps the League was ‘all right for Europeans’. Other special committees had the job of improving child welfare, women’s rights, of stopping drug smuggling, and of helping refugees. It seldom criticised British politicians over foreign policy. Past Papers Of Home/Cambridge International Examinations (CIE)/IGCSE/History (0470) | PapaCambridge . The figure taking off the lid is Mussolini. Chapter 2 • To what extent was the League of Nations a success? Neville Chamberlain 6. How successful was the League in the 1920s? PCS History Department The League of Nations 1919 - 1939 2. year10unit4startcoldwar.doc: File Size: 40 kb: File Type: doc: Download File. All major countries were to join and disarm. But after the strong terms of the Versailles Treaty became known, their enthusiasm turned to bitterness. Conditions. Lausanne 1. 0470_m18_2_2_qp. Contains: unit content (Were the peace treaties of 1919-23 fair?) They did this partly to take their peoples’ minds off the fact that they were often poor and without jobs. (Both countries were still recovering from the dreadful effects of the First World War), leaving the League powerless. The major powers could still make war by claiming that they were acting in self-defence or to protect their own interests. The emphasis is on both historical knowledge and on the skills required for historical research. There are extensive revision materials on this topic in the IGCSE/GCSE history revision menu. Nansen 1. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE HISTORY REVISION 2 - LEAGUE OF NATIONS. In 1925, the League stopped Greece from attacking Bulgaria by threatening an economic embargo. In Germany, the League stood for scorn and ridicule. This revision podcast is aimed at students studying GCSE and IGCSE History. Total Pageviews . Explain your answer. model answers and exam technique cartoon analysis for unit 1 Please comment or give feedback, it is much appreciated! The League was bound to uphold the peace treaties which had created it. 39 terms. 0470_m18_1_2_ms. Despite these problems, many people were very enthusiastic about the League in its early days and it was able to do a lot of useful work in the 1920s. How effectively did the USA contain the spread of Communism? 0470_m18_2_2_ms. Home Cambridge Inter ... IGCSE . There they discussed an agreement to preserve the peace of Europe and later signed the Locarno Treaties in London. League of Nations Interactive. Sunday, 29 March 2015. THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH... 53 terms. History 2: IGCSE League of Nations study guide by LukePaterson9 includes 26 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. The first attempt to limit armaments after the First World War was made at the Washington Conference. 2. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE/AS HISTORY: THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS 1919-1939 1. 0.0 / 5. It consisted of 15 judges of different nationalities and dealt with legal disputes between states, as opposed to political ones. The Kellogg-Briand Pact, or Pact of Paris, 1928. were discussed but without America, Japan’s main trading partner, they would be meaningless. Rollin Kirby 1924 (Won a Pulitzer Prize for this cartoon). When Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles by rearming Germany and remilitarising the Rhineland, the League could not stop him. The ILO distributed information on labour conditions and encouraged governments to improve the workers’ standard of living. In the absence of the USA, Britain and France were the most powerful countries in the League as they usually guided policy.  (c) ‘The League of Nations was based on sound ideas.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Try this revision quiz on the League of Nations. arose as a result of the Depression. 2000 - Vietnam: 2001 - The League of Nations: 2002 - Czechoslovakia 1968: 2003 - Hitler's Foreign Policy to 1939: 2004 - Cold War 1945-47: 2005 - Causes of WWI or Treaty of Versailles: 2006 - America and events in Cuba, 1959-62 : 2007 - Korean War 1950-53: 2008 - Events leading up to the … Munich Conference 4. Any action of the League needed their support. The League of Nations. Despite its success in settling disputes between small nations, the. “News from the Outside World,” depicting the three nations who were not members of the League (USA, Russia and Mexico) as bums who are following with interest the goings-on of the “civilized” nations that were part of the League of Nations. (a) Describe June-July 1914 crisis (b) Explain Balkan problem (c) Evaluate Austria and Serbian rivalry as causes of war. As a result of the settled, improved conditions in Europe, British and French troops left the areas they had occupied in Germany since 1919. Edexcel IGCSE consists of two mandatory papers. A guide to IGCSE History paper 2 - source analysis. The summer 2018 exam will include a Paper 2 exam on the League of Nations in the 1920s and 1930s. 0470_s18_ms_11. year10unit4startcoldwar.doc: File Size: 40 kb: File Type: doc: Download File. Unit 3: The causes of WW2. 33 terms. Why had international peace collapsed by 1939? WHY DID THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS FAIL OVER THE ITALIAN INVASION OF ABYSSINIA? Paper 2: 2 hours How effectively did the USA contain the spread of Communism? May-June 2000. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Japan 3. Why did Events in the Gulf Matter? There are 60 marks available in total. IGCSE Paper 2 2. IGCSE History 0470 Past Papers About IGCSE History Syllabus The Cambridge IGCSE History syllabus looks at some of the major international issues of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as well as covering the history of particular regions in more depth. The League depended on Britain and France to provide firm support in times of crisis. PCS History Department The Birth of the League In 1918 nobody wanted to repeat the mass slaugther of the war. Member-nations were more concerned with solving their own economic problems than with preserving peace. Cambridge IGCSE History 0470/13 Paper 1 Q6 a, b & c November 2010 y’s agencies … Exam revision on the League of Nations for GCSE History - UKSpecifically designed for our fantastic students at Campsmount Technology College - Doncaster - UK FOURAIMSOFTHELEAGUEOFNATIONS 1. 0 1 Study Source A in the Sources Booklet. IGCSE History Exams: Paper 2 (Document) Style Questions. Moreover, they were unwilling to risk their navies or armies in a war with Japan. This only goes to show how seriously the Pact was regarded and how successful the Pact was in promoting world peace. For the leaders of Britain and France, the League posed a real problem. 2 To what extent was the League of Nations a success? Wilson’s great contribution was to insist that the League Covenant should be included in each of the separate peace treaties. GCSE HISTORY Paper 1B/B: Conflict and tension, the inter-war years, 1918–1939 . Geneva was openly referred to as a club for the victors of the First World War. … History IGCSE Paper 1- League of Nations and Treaty of Versailles Part A. It contains: Sevres 1. Jim co-founded tutor2u alongside his twin brother Geoff! Unit 4: The causes of the Cold War. League of Nations. It was indeed unfortunate that many of the crisis in the 1930s coincided with the Great Depression, which afflicted most democracies. This invasion shared many similarities to the invasion of Manchuria. 4. Home > GCSE study tools > History > League Of Nations. However, both countries were not ready to take on this role as both had been weakened by the First World War. Successes and failures in peacekeeping during the 1920s. The need for all members to agree on a course of action undermined the strength of the League. The Edexcel International GCSE curriculum is a project School History is embarking on in order to give our teachers access to the highest quality teaching resources. Soviet Union 1. Sunday, 29 March 2015. IGCSE NOVEMBER 2001 PAPER 2. 2 Paper 0470/01 Paper 1 General comments The overall standard was similar to previous years. Major countries of the world were plagued by severe economic problems on the home front and thus, redirected their energy to solving economic problems rather than channel their attention to deal with global problems of international significance. There was also a feeling of self-sufficiency in the USA. The main aim of the conference was to prevent the growth of a naval arms race between Britain, Japan and the United States. attempt to limit the growth of armaments before the Second World War. Here you can see the French maid and English gentleman chastising Mussolini. Successes: Aalands Islands 1920- Finland who had recently broken away from Russia asserted themselves over the island, many of the … All model answers are my own, and based upon what is neccessary to get A or A at IGCSE. Premium. However, Britain and France were not willing to commit their troops, particularly if it was not in their interests to take action. For the assessment of Paper 2, students are assessed through an examination based on their historical investigation and breadth study in change.Students answer two questions, one question on their historical investigation and one question on their breadth study in change. Tes Global Ltd is Kent College History's insight: League of Nations: the effectiveness of the League and world peace. A guide to IGCSE History paper 2 - source analysis. 0470_m18_1_2_qp. However, none of the suggestions gained wide support and so no decision was reached. London WC1R 4HQ. Key Questions. Study Sources A and B. Like Japan, Italy invaded Abyssinia to expand her empire. Britain, Japan and the USA agreed to limit the size of their navies but that was as far as disarmament ever got. 100 terms. It also supervised the administration of mandated territories, the Free City of Danzig and the Saar. Citizenship Test. IGCSE History Peace Treaties. In 1931, China appealed to the League of Nations which condemned Japan and ordered its troops to be withdrawn. They all taught their people too to see themselves as members of super races, with the right to conquer and rule over other ‘inferior’ nations and races. Disgusted, the Japanese government - ruled by the Divine Emperor - just stormed out of the League. Mustafa Kemal 3. It also showed that Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann’s policy of steady reconciliation was working. The following examples are best shared with students after they have attempted them in test conditions. 0470_s18_gt. HISTORY Paper 0470/11 Paper 11 Key messages Successful responses are dependent upon candidates reading the questions carefully (especially where dates are concerned) to understand exactly what is being asked, so that only relevant information is included in responses. Test your knowledge of this topic with an interactive game at: http://www.zondle.com/cdl.aspx?qp=467521&a=934 The talks would take place in the League’s Assembly in Geneva, a sort of world parliament which met once a year and in which each member country had one vote. In October 1935, the Abyssinians claimed that the Italians had launched a full-scale invasion into their territory. History IGCSE A History revision blog covering all the points in the History IGCSE specification. Spanish Civil War … Besides settling international disputes, the League encouraged co-operation between countries and helped to solve social and economic problems. Directories . CAMBRIDGE IGCSE HISTORY REVISION 2 - LEAGUE OF NATIONS 1. In its function of peace-keeping, it was expected that the League would operate as follows: all disputes threatening war would be submitted to the League and any member which resorted to war, thus breaking the covenant would face action by the rest; the council would recommend what effective military, naval or air force the members should contribute to the armed forces. It aimed to limit not just naval armaments but all kinds of weapons. This ensured that the League actually came into existence instead of merely remaining a topic for discussion. When conflicts occurred, however, neither the British nor the French government were prepared to abandon their own self-interest to support the League. In 1919, Germany welcomed the idea of a League of Nations and wished to be among the founder-members. 57 terms. Total Pageviews . CAMBRIDGE IGCSE HISTORY REVISION 2 - LEAGUE OF NATIONS 1. Chapter 5 Social Studies. For example, the disappointment of Italy and the inclusion of Germans in Poland and Czechoslovakia. Italy 2. This is a guide for the IGCSE History Paper 2 June 2018 Exam - Unit 2: To what extent was the League of Nations a success? There was still much bitterness against Germany after the First World War. It set out to solve international disputes and improve people’s lives, to remove the causes of war. Chapter 2 • To what extent was the League of Nations a success? IGCSE History May & June Past Papers. 1. If economic sanctions failed, military force was the next action but it would always be a last resort because of the cost. They knew that a new body, the United Nations Organisation, was already in existence and that it would take over most of the League’s work. Unit 5: The globalisation of the Cold War. It focuses on striking a balance between the successes and failures of the League of Nations in the 1920s, in order to best help students revise for an exam question on this topic. Japan ignored the League when it seized Manchuria in 1931 and when it invaded China in 1937. 5. Start studying League of Nations- Topic 2, IGCSE history. It can be used as a personalised independent learning module which enables pupils to cover GCSE 9-1 content on the League of Nations using the differentiated work booklet but can also be used as a revision resource or a teaching resource via a data projector or interactive whiteboard. Unit 2: The League of Nations. 0470_m18_4_2_ms. Try this revision quiz on the League of Nations. 0470_m18_4_2_qp. Cambridge IGCSE History 0470/13 Paper 1 Q6 a, b & c November 2010 y’s agencies … This was known as. and thus improve living and working conditions for all people. Improve people's lives and Jobs – Encourage co-operation in trade/ Economic and social agencies. To what extent was the League of Nations a success? exam technique and model answers Although international relations remained good until about 1931, the basic causes of hostility between Germany and the Allies had not been removed: Germany still wanted the Versailles Treaty to be revised; and. … The summer 2018 exam will include a Paper 2 exam on the League of Nations in the 1920s and 1930s.There are extensive revision materials on this topic in the IGCSE/GCSE history revision menu.. It was unable to stop any of the serious acts of aggression which took place in the inter-war period and this failure contributed to the outbreak of the Second World War. Russia was eventually expelled from the League after its attack on Finland in 1940. Q# Topic. France continued its policy of keeping Germany weak and isolated. 1. 28/04/1919: First Draft of League of Nations Covenant approved 07/05/1919: Final Version of Treaty of Versailles given to German Representatives. Details . 2 *02* IB/M/ ADDSAM /8145/1B /B Do not write outside the box Answer all four questions. 0470_m18_4_2_ms. Explain your answer using SourceA and your contextual knowledge. iGCSE History.  (c) ‘The League of Nations was based on sound ideas.’ How far do you agree with this statement? 1 of 12. In particular, they felt that trade sanctions would only work if the Americans applied them. It was moreover difficult to ensure decisive actions against any aggressor. A cartoon from Punch, 1935. His proposal for keeping the pace through a permanent international organisation of nations was adopted in the Paris Peace Settlement of 1919. In the 1920s, the League largely failed to bring about disarmament. You will need to be able to address ALL the key questions (opposite) to be confident of answering a question on this topic. The assessment duration is 1 hour 30 minutes.  (b) Why did the Depression cause problems for the League? League Of Nations. Many different suggestions on disarmament were discussed, including a French suggestion for an international peacekeeping force. Each time you take the quiz you get 10 MCQs. 0470_s18_0_0_er. To try a new quiz simply refresh your browser on this link! While the League had not had much success in the area during the 1920s, the international climate of the 1930s showed that disarmament was a far more serious and urgent issue for the League to resolve. This revision podcast is aimed at students studying GCSE and IGCSE History. CAMBRIDGEIGCSE HISTORYREVISION2 LEAGUEOFNATIONS 2. by dealing with disputes among nations and discourage aggression from any nation. President Warren Harding of the United States organised the conference to discuss the balance of power in East Asia and the Pacific. 5. comments on: "igcse history past paper and revision questions+debate topics – the league of nations" (2) When Japan refused, the League appointed a commission under Lord Lytton which decided in 1932 that there were faults on both sides and suggested that Manchuria be governed by the League. 3. This Article tackles the topic which is the basis of several history class debates and IGCSE Past Paper Questions. League of Nations 16. The Kellogg-Briand Pact from History Central. Paper 4: 1 hour Answer One Question on Depth Study. The League looked most impressive on paper but right from the start of its existence, it was actually rather weak. IGCSE History 0470 Past Papers About IGCSE History Syllabus The Cambridge IGCSE History syllabus looks at some of the major international issues of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as well as covering the history of particular regions in more depth.  (b) Why did the Depression cause problems for the League? Successes and failures in peacekeeping during the 1920s. 34 nations were represented, meeting once more in the Palace of the Nations. The cartoonist is disagreeing with the level of action taken against Italy in this instance. b.) However, the naval powers distrusted each other. Hide Show resource information. Scapa Flow 1. CAMBRIDGEIGCSE HISTORYREVISION2 LEAGUEOFNATIONS 2. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. For the first few years of its existence, the League was deprived of three of the world’s most important powers at one point in time or another, namely the United States, the Soviet Union and Germany: The League suffered the blow when USA refused to join the League because of its isolationist policy after the First World War. Worried about the changing situation in Germany, France began building a series of frontier defences on its border with Germany (Maginot Line). It would help the victim by cutting off all links with the aggressor, especially trade and financial links, in other words, impose economic sanctions. Depth Study: Germany Part 2 - Why was Hitler able to dominate Germany by 1934? The peaceful policy of the German chancellor and later Foreign Minister, Gustav Stresemann, and the French desire for greater security led to improved relations between Germany and France. The League could talk about quarrels between countries, it could cut off trade with attackers, but. Successes: Aalands Islands 1920- Finland who had recently broken away from Russia asserted themselves over the island, many of the … The Kellogg-Briand Pact declared that war should be used as ‘an instrument of national policy’ and condemned it as a means of settling international disputes. There was the Health Organisation for improving the world’s health – for example, by trying to wipe out leprosy. 0.0 / 5. Kent College History's insight: League of Nations: the effectiveness of the League and world peace. The League began its work in January 1920. Road to War 5. 0470_m18_2_2_qp. The League looked most impressive on paper but right from the start of its existence, it was actually rather weak. Home Interwar Years Post WWII > > Germany 1919 - 45 Textbook Misc. History ; League; IGCSE; CIE; Created by: tsmithbecerra; Created on: 03-11-16 05:44; What are the aims of the League? Stop war – (Article 10 of the Covenant = ‘collective security’) 2. IGCSE History May & June Past Papers. HISTORY 0470/22 Paper 2 October/November 2016 2 hours No Additional Materials are required. (6) Sources A and B are accounts by historians about the events that led up to the failure of the League over … The fragility of World peace idea of a number of disputes between small Nations, the Free City of and... Students Try this revision podcast is aimed at students studying GCSE and IGCSE History revision 2 - League of 1919-1939... Violate the terms of those peace treaties of 1919-23 fair? summer 2018 exam will include Paper. Love History War by claiming that they were often poor and without Jobs nor French... Help you improve your grades Allies made it clear that Germany should be allowed arms equality with Britain and...., especially without American help to modules for First teaching from 2019 the globalisation of the League Nations! Hitler began to rearm Germany and Japan were also permanent members of the League in 1933! 40 kb: File Type: doc: Download File stop aggressive Nations of. = ‘ collective security had failed able to dominate Germany by 1934 territories, the Free City of and! The following examples are best shared with students after they have attempted them test. Involved a Great power, however, neither the British nor the French maid and English chastising. Have to apply for membership when Germany had fully accepted the Treaty terms the main aim of the.! Member-Nations ignored the League depended on Britain and France were the ones Who had to decisions! To elect the Nazis, Who promised to solve social and economic problems in the sources.. Treaties were harsh and unjust and needed amending the Rhineland, the League of Nations 1919 45! For scorn and ridicule believed in ‘ totalitarian ’ Type of government effective, the powerful were. 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